This research will look to find superior varieties of plums for human health, concentrating on investigating heritage and traditional European varieties in comparison with Japanese plum varieties.

European Plums

These plum varieties (prunes, damsons and greengages) typically contain very high levels of:

  • Anthocyanins
    • Cy-rut (Cyanidin-3-rutinoside)
    • Pn-glu (Peonidin-3-glycoside)
    • Pn-rut (Peonidin-3-rutinoside)
  • Quercetin Glycosides
    • Q-rha (Quercetin-3-rhamnoside)
    • Q-penthex
  • Neochlorogenic acid (3-CQA)

Black Doris Plum

Black Doris Plums contain very high levels of:

  • Anthocyanins
    • Cy-gal (Cyanidin-3-galactoside)
    • Cy-glu (Cyanidin-3-glucoside)
  • Quercetin Glycosides
    • Q-glu (Quercetin-3-glucoside)
    • Q-xly (Quercetin-3-xyloside)
    • Q-acetythex

Graphs  – Click on graph to enlarge


This research looks to find superior varieties of peaches for human health. We have focussed on Blackboy peach varieties available in New Zealand.

Blackboy Peaches

We chose Black boy peaches because of their distinctive red/purple flesh and dark skin, both flesh and skin colours being indicators of high levels of compounds in the variety. Blackboy Peaches are a New Zealand heirloom peach variety with dark port wine skin and blood red flesh. Similar red fleshed peach varieties exist around the world such as pêche de vigne, or the blood peach.Blackboy peaches can contain very high levels of chlorogenic acid (5-CQA) and quercetin glycosides; Q-glu (quercetin-3-glucoside) and Q-gal (quercetin-3-galactoside). Blackboy is a collective name for around six varieties of red fleshed peaches which were imported predominantly from France in the early 20th Century.

Pear Research

We have only just researched a few pear varieties and include this data here to encourage further research. In our sample, the best variety appeared to be a French heirloom variety from 1830 called Beurre Clairgeau.

The Beurre Clairgeau pear was brought to New Zealand in 1874 by William Thomas Benefield from Kingston in Kent, South England. The variety has been grown in Whanganui, New Zealand, by the Benefield family ever since.

This painting of the pear was done by Bernadette Evans (nee Benefield) and illustrates the fruit and foliage as well as the beautiful flowers that this variety has. With cold autumn nights the leaves turn a stunning red colour. The pear was marketed under the name ‘Beurre Claire’ (in modern names) in New Zealand.